TOOLS OF PARTISAN GERRYMANDERING
There are two main methods used to gerrymander: packing and cracking. With these tools, the party in charge of redistricting can win a majority share of districts with a minority share of statewide votes.
As seen below, packing and cracking can contribute to districts with strange shapes which, like the original "Gerrymander", are mocked by the opposition.
"Packing push[es] as many minority voters as possible into a few super-concentrated districts, and drain[s] the population's voting power from anywhere else...Cracking splinter[s] minority populations into small pieces across several districts, so that a big group ends up with a very little chance to impact any single election."